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MLA论文格式要求及写作技巧

时间:2012-09-26来源:MLA,MLA格式栏目:英语作文写作技巧作者:作文地带 英语作文收藏:收藏本文
MLA论文格式要求及写作规范
MLA论文格式要求
  1. 论文全文采用小四号Times New Roman(12号)字体:论文题目采用小二号 Times New Roman;中文题目采用小2号宋体。一级标题(章标题)采用16号Times New Roman,分别冠以I、II、III、IV、V等序号;二级标题(节标题)14号,分别冠以1.1, 1.2、2.1, 2.2、等序号;三级标题(节以下标题)均采用12号,分别冠以1.1.1、2.1.1等序号。所有标题加黑。
  2. 论文正文采用段首缩进5个字符,单面打印;2倍行距。正文第一页加论文题目。
  3. 正文(包括附录和参考文献)页码标注格式为阿拉伯数字1 2 3….页码标注在页面底部居中。论文封面不标注页码。
  4. 论文采用A4复印纸单面打印。上、下、右边距为25mm;左边距为30mm,其中10mm供装订。
  5. 论文装订次序为论文封面、论文主体(body),参考文献、附录(若有)。论文页码从正文开始。
示例1:MLA格式参考文献著录及引述格式
第一部分:正文内引述   (In-text Citation: MLA Style)
[The formatting generally follows the latest Modern Language Association (MLA) style, including parenthetical references.*Parenthetical documentation means that in the text, only the author’s surname and the page number is given in parentheses following the quotation or any reference to another source. If the author’s name is given in the introductory statement to the quotation, only the page number is given in parentheses at the end. Footnotes are not used for this purpose in the modern MLA style. (MLA一般不用脚注)The Works Cited page contains the full name of the author, the title of the book, etc. Internet sites frequently do not have page numbers, so that only the name of the author or web site is given in parentheses. Footnotes are used sparingly, and only to give additional information not suitable to include in the text.] (Julia Diterman)
. MLA格式文内摘录一般用括号加注法:
 
1 括号内(作者姓氏+引文页码),如果引文中已经给出作者姓名,只需括号加注内页码即可。例如:
 
e.g  In studying the influence of Latin American, African and Asian music on modern American composers, music historians tend to discuss such figures as Aaron Copland, George Gershwin, Henry Cowell, Alan Hovhaness, and John Cage (Brindle; Griffiths 104-39; Hitchcock 173-98这里同时引用不同作者的多篇文献)
e.g Brian Taves suggests some interesting conclusions regarding philosophy and politics of the adventure film (153-54, 171). 
e.g Her idea is further confirmed that “people think her odd and that nobody loves and admires her” (Fountain 33).
 
e.g Her idea is further confirmed that “people think her odd and that nobody loves and admires her (Fountain 33).”(不规范)
 
e.g Her idea is further confirmed that “people think her odd and that nobody loves and admires her (Fountain 33).” (不规范)
2. 引用中文著作或期刊时同姓作者的情况较多,应在括号夹注中使用他们名字的首字母加以区分,如:
MLA  (S.R. Wang 26)             (J.X. Wang 30)
 
3. 两个作者时可以用 & 连接,两个以上时可用 ,隔开. 如:
e.g According to educational psychologists, raising children is a responsibility of the entire community (Franklin, Childs, & Smith 410).
 
4. 引用团体作者的作品,括号夹注中应使用团体的名称
e.g It was apparent that the American health care system needed “to be fixed and perhaps radically modified” (Public Agenda Foundation 4).
5. 引用无作者文献:引用无作者文献,如果文献标题没有出现在正文里,则括号夹注中应使用该标题或者(如果标题过长的话)使用该标题中的关键词组,如:
e.g An anonymous Wordsworth critic once argued that his poems were too emotional (“Wordsworth Is A Loser” 100).
6.引用非直接文献(indirect source)论文应尽可能避免使用非直接文献(即二级文献secondary source),但在无法找到直接文献(即一级文献primary source)的情况下,引文可以从非直接文献中析出,例如:
e.g Samuel Johnson admitted that Edmund Burke was an “extraordinary man” (qtd. in Boswell 2: 450).
 
引用整篇文献即全书或全文观点时有两种情况:一种是作者的姓氏在正文中没有出现,如:
(摘自:复旦大学英语语言专业学位论文规范)
 
e.g Charlottes and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing (Taylor).
 
另一种情况是作者的姓氏已在正文同一句中出现,按MLA规范不需要使用括号夹注,如
 
e.g Taylor claims that Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing.
超过四行的文内摘引语,另起一段,首行在原文基础上再缩进五个字符。行间距按1.5倍打印。
Lengthy quoted passages (more than four lines) are single-spaced and indented from the left margin.(some time from both margins) five paces. The first line is indented an additional five spaces when it marks the beginning of a paragraph.
 
把句号或逗号放在引号内Place the period and the comma within the quotation marks:
E.g. “Jenny,” he said, “let’s have lunch.”
也有例外: e.g.  The author states: “Time alone reveals the just(471)”.
当摘引用于强调事件本身时,破折号 , 问号和感叹号!一般置于引号内;当用于强调整个句子时,置于引号外。    例如:
e.g  Gordon answered, “No way !”
e.g  Stop whistling “All Do is Dream of you” !
 
第二部分:参考文献著录 Works cited or Bibliography
MLA格式(Documenting List of Sources: MLA Style)
      正文引用文献须按MLA要求,著录在Works Cited或者Bibliography之下,在正文最后一章结束后另页开始,页码与正文相连。文献著录必须按作者姓氏的字母顺序排列,不得以正文中出现的先后编码排序,不得使用阿拉伯数字。每一条目中的各项内容都必须按MLA规定的次序和格式编排。
参考文献的字体与正文相同,条目间距为1.5倍行间距,另行缩进5个字符间距
.每个参考文献一般有三个部分组成,依次是:作者姓,逗号,名,黑点,书名(斜体,如有副标题加冒号,文章名用引号),黑点,出版地,冒号,出版商,出版年。
e.g Feldman, Paula R. ed. British Women Poets of the Romantic Era. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1997.
 (Note: In a MLA style, always give the author’s name as it appears on the title page.  Never abbreviate a name given in full. Only use initials if the title page does.以书名上所给名字为准 )
Borroff, Marie. trans. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. New York: Norton, 1967.
Eggins, Suzanne, and Diane Slade. Analyzing Casual Conversation. London: Cassell, 1997. (Note: Reverse the first author’s name only,当有两个作者是,只把第一位作者的姓,名倒置)
Brownell, Hiram H., and Heather H. Potter. “Inference Deficits in Right-Brain Damaged Patients.” Brain and Language 27 (1986): 310-21.
 
Gilman, Sander, et al.(两个以上作者) Hysteria beyond Freund. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. (Note: When there are more than three names, name only the first and add et al., or give all names in full in the order in which they appear on the tile page.)
Ⅱ引用各类文献中的文章
 
1.书评、影评、电视节目评论等(Review)
 
Kidd, John. “The Scandal of Ulysses.” Rev. of Ulysses: The Corrected Text, by Hans Walter Gabler. New York Review of Books 30 June 1988: 32-39.
2. 收集在书籍中的文章(Selection from an edited book)
 
Glover, David. “The Stuff That Dreams Are Made Of: Masculinity, Femininity, and the Thriller.” Gender, Genre and Narrative Pleasure. Ed. Derek Longhurst. London: Unwin Hyman, 1989. 67-83.
3.杂志中的文章
 
Miller, Mark Crispen. “Massa, Come Home.” New Republic 16 Sept. 1981: 29-32.
 
4.百科全书中的文章An entry in an encyclopedia
 
Mohanty, Jitendra M. “Indian Philosophy.” The New Encyclopaedia Britannica: Macropaedia. 15th ed. 1987.
 
5研究报告
 
Flower, Linda. The Role of Task Representation in Reading to Write. Technical Report No. 6. Berkeley: Center for the Study of Writing at U of California, Berkeley and Carnegie Mellon U, 1987.
 
6翻译的书籍(Translated book)
 
Lacan, Jacques. Ecrits: A Selection. Trans. Alan Sheridan. New York: Norton, 1977.
7.硕博士论文(Dissertation
 
Hubert, Henry Allan. “The Development of English Studies in Nineteenth-Century Anglo- Canadian Colleges.” Diss. U of British Columbia, 1988.
 
8.学术会议上的报告(Conference paper
 
Moffett, James. “Censorship and Spiritual Education.” The Right to Literacy Conference. Columbus, Ohio, September 1988.
 
9.电视广播节目和系列报道(A Radio/Television Broadcast/Series)
 
“Monkey Trial.” American Experience. PBS. WGBH, Boston. 18 Mar. 2003.
 
Ⅲ 著录汉语著作和文章
   如果在英文撰写的论文中引用中文著作或者期刊,括号夹注中只需用汉语拼音标明作者的姓氏,参考文献著录的条目必须按作者姓氏汉语拼音的字母顺序排列。例如:
 
Zhang, Zhijian. [张志健],严复思想研究. 桂林:广西师大出版社,1989
Yu, Yongding. [余永定],财政稳定问题研究的一个理论框架. 世界经济2005,(7):25-29
Wang, Mingliang. [王明亮],关于中国学术期刊标准数据库系统工程的进展[EB/OL]. http://www.cajcd.edu.cn,1998-08-16/1999-10-04
     注意:这里最后是一个著录网络上汉语出版物的例子,其中“1998-08-16”为网页发表或更新的日期,“1999-10-04”为引用日期。
Ⅳ 著录网络出版物
     著录网络出版物必须标明出版物的上传日期和论文撰写人上网查询的日期(date of retrieval),标明网址。条目中网址如需断开换行,必须在“/”之后或者“.”之前,网址中不得出现空格。
 
网络期刊(online journal)上的文章
1.纸印期刊的电子版:
Bleich, Eric. “From International Ideas to Domestic Policies: Educational Multiculturalism in England and France.” Comparative Politics 31.1 (Oct. 1998): 6 pp. Expanded Academic ASAP. Middlebury College 2 Aug. 2003 <http://myriad.middlebury.edu/verify-iac>.
          该例中,6 pp.”表示文章6页,Expanded Academic ASAP. Middlebury College”为网页名称,2 Aug. 2000”为论文撰写人上网查询的日期。
 
2. 网络上的独立文本(Stand-alone document)
 
Eilola, John. “Little Machines: Rearticulating Hypertext Users.” 3 Dec. 1994. 14 Aug 1996 <ftp://ps.joozone.com/pub/CCCC95/john-eilol>.
3. 大学网页上的文献
 
Felluga, Dino. Undergraduate Guide to Literary Theory. 17 Dec. 1999. Purdue University. 15 Nov. 2000 <http://omni.cc.joozone.edu/7Efelluga/ theory2.html>.
 
4. 网络上的参考资料(Online reference source
 
 
 “Fresco.” Britannica Online. Vers. 98.2. April 1998. Encyclopedia Britannica. 8 May 1998 <http://www.joozone.com:180>.
 
          注意:本例中Vers. 98.2为版本,April 1998为出版日期,Encyclopedia Britannica为出版人。
 
列举参考文献时所用到的缩写(Abbreviation
bk. , bks-----book, books         cf.---compare
ch. ,chs-----chapter, chapters      ed., eds----edition, editions
et al---- et alii, “and others ”   no., nos—number(of issue), numbers
p., pp.---page, pages          pt., pts----part,parts
qtd—quoted                 rpt—reprinted
Uni--- University            vol., vols-volume, volumes 
 
其它文内规范
  1. 不可以用缩写。
  2. 两位数以内的数字用英文拼写,两位以上的可以用阿拉伯数字标出即可。E.g.  Twenty-two years   thirty dollars,
                      124 years,    $29.9   5261 voters
  1. 标点符号后空一个字符。
非英语词句的引用和翻译格式。例如
 
e.g  Learners of Spanish tend to overuse certain idiomatic expressions, e.g., irse todo en humo (“to go up in smoke”).
4. 正确使用图表,图表必须有序号和题目并标明单位序号和题目置于其正上方单位置于其右上方。题目应简短确切一般不超过一行。须有自明性,即:不阅读正文的读者也能够理解图或表的意思。例如:
 
图3.5:正确使用图表的序号
正确:
Table 4.1 sums up the results of data analysis.
错误:
The following table sums up the results of data analysis:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
示例1:MLA格式参考文献著录及引述格式
第一部分:正文内引述   (In-text Citation: MLA Style)
[The formatting generally follows the latest Modern Language Association (MLA) style, including parenthetical references.*Parenthetical documentation means that in the text, only the author’s surname and the page number is given in parentheses following the quotation or any reference to another source. If the author’s name is given in the introductory statement to the quotation, only the page number is given in parentheses at the end. Footnotes are not used for this purpose in the modern MLA style. (MLA一般不用脚注)The Works Cited page contains the full name of the author, the title of the book, etc. Internet sites frequently do not have page numbers, so that only the name of the author or web site is given in parentheses. Footnotes are used sparingly, and only to give additional information not suitable to include in the text.] (Julia Diterman)
. MLA格式文内摘录一般用括号加注法:
 
1 括号内(作者姓氏+引文页码),如果引文中已经给出作者姓名,只需括号加注内页码即可。例如:
 
e.g  In studying the influence of Latin American, African and Asian music on modern American composers, music historians tend to discuss such figures as Aaron Copland, George Gershwin, Henry Cowell, Alan Hovhaness, and John Cage (Brindle; Griffiths 104-39; Hitchcock 173-98这里同时引用不同作者的多篇文献)
e.g Brian Taves suggests some interesting conclusions regarding philosophy and politics of the adventure film (153-54, 171). 
e.g Her idea is further confirmed that “people think her odd and that nobody loves and admires her” (Fountain 33).
 
e.g Her idea is further confirmed that “people think her odd and that nobody loves and admires her (Fountain 33).”(不规范)
 
e.g Her idea is further confirmed that “people think her odd and that nobody loves and admires her (Fountain 33).” (不规范)
2. 引用中文著作或期刊时同姓作者的情况较多,应在括号夹注中使用他们名字的首字母加以区分,如:
MLA  (S.R. Wang 26)             (J.X. Wang 30)
 
3. 两个作者时可以用 & 连接,两个以上时可用 ,隔开. 如:
e.g According to educational psychologists, raising children is a responsibility of the entire community (Franklin, Childs, & Smith 410).
 
4. 引用团体作者的作品,括号夹注中应使用团体的名称
e.g It was apparent that the American health care system needed “to be fixed and perhaps radically modified” (Public Agenda Foundation 4).
5. 引用无作者文献:引用无作者文献,如果文献标题没有出现在正文里,则括号夹注中应使用该标题或者(如果标题过长的话)使用该标题中的关键词组,如:
e.g An anonymous Wordsworth critic once argued that his poems were too emotional (“Wordsworth Is A Loser” 100).
6.引用非直接文献(indirect source)论文应尽可能避免使用非直接文献(即二级文献secondary source),但在无法找到直接文献(即一级文献primary source)的情况下,引文可以从非直接文献中析出,例如:
e.g Samuel Johnson admitted that Edmund Burke was an “extraordinary man” (qtd. in Boswell 2: 450).
 
引用整篇文献即全书或全文观点时有两种情况:一种是作者的姓氏在正文中没有出现,如:
(摘自:复旦大学英语语言专业学位论文规范)
 
e.g Charlottes and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing (Taylor).
 
另一种情况是作者的姓氏已在正文同一句中出现,按MLA规范不需要使用括号夹注,如
 
e.g Taylor claims that Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing.
超过四行的文内摘引语,另起一段,首行在原文基础上再缩进五个字符。行间距按1.5倍打印。
Lengthy quoted passages (more than four lines) are single-spaced and indented from the left margin.(some time from both margins) five paces. The first line is indented an additional five spaces when it marks the beginning of a paragraph.
 
把句号或逗号放在引号内Place the period and the comma within the quotation marks:
E.g. “Jenny,” he said, “let’s have lunch.”
也有例外: e.g.  The author states: “Time alone reveals the just(471)”.
当摘引用于强调事件本身时,破折号 , 问号和感叹号!一般置于引号内;当用于强调整个句子时,置于引号外。    例如:
e.g  Gordon answered, “No way !”
e.g  Stop whistling “All Do is Dream of you” !
 
第二部分:参考文献著录 Works cited or Bibliography
MLA格式(Documenting List of Sources: MLA Style)
      正文引用文献须按MLA要求,著录在Works Cited或者Bibliography之下,在正文最后一章结束后另页开始,页码与正文相连。文献著录必须按作者姓氏的字母顺序排列,不得以正文中出现的先后编码排序,不得使用阿拉伯数字。每一条目中的各项内容都必须按MLA规定的次序和格式编排。
参考文献的字体与正文相同,条目间距为1.5倍行间距,另行缩进5个字符间距
.每个参考文献一般有三个部分组成,依次是:作者姓,逗号,名,黑点,书名(斜体,如有副标题加冒号,文章名用引号),黑点,出版地,冒号,出版商,出版年。
e.g Feldman, Paula R. ed. British Women Poets of the Romantic Era. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1997.
 (Note: In a MLA style, always give the author’s name as it appears on the title page.  Never abbreviate a name given in full. Only use initials if the title page does.以书名上所给名字为准 )
Borroff, Marie. trans. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. New York: Norton, 1967.
Eggins, Suzanne, and Diane Slade. Analyzing Casual Conversation. London: Cassell, 1997. (Note: Reverse the first author’s name only,当有两个作者是,只把第一位作者的姓,名倒置)
Brownell, Hiram H., and Heather H. Potter. “Inference Deficits in Right-Brain Damaged Patients.” Brain and Language 27 (1986): 310-21.
 
Gilman, Sander, et al.(两个以上作者) Hysteria beyond Freund. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. (Note: When there are more than three names, name only the first and add et al., or give all names in full in the order in which they appear on the tile page.)
Ⅱ引用各类文献中的文章
 
1.书评、影评、电视节目评论等(Review)
 
Kidd, John. “The Scandal of Ulysses.” Rev. of Ulysses: The Corrected Text, by Hans Walter Gabler. New York Review of Books 30 June 1988: 32-39.
2. 收集在书籍中的文章(Selection from an edited book)
 
Glover, David. “The Stuff That Dreams Are Made Of: Masculinity, Femininity, and the Thriller.” Gender, Genre and Narrative Pleasure. Ed. Derek Longhurst. London: Unwin Hyman, 1989. 67-83.
3.杂志中的文章
 
Miller, Mark Crispen. “Massa, Come Home.” New Republic 16 Sept. 1981: 29-32.
 
4.百科全书中的文章An entry in an encyclopedia
 
Mohanty, Jitendra M. “Indian Philosophy.” The New Encyclopaedia Britannica: Macropaedia. 15th ed. 1987.
 
5研究报告
 
Flower, Linda. The Role of Task Representation in Reading to Write. Technical Report No. 6. Berkeley: Center for the Study of Writing at U of California, Berkeley and Carnegie Mellon U, 1987.
 
6翻译的书籍(Translated book)
 
Lacan, Jacques. Ecrits: A Selection. Trans. Alan Sheridan. New York: Norton, 1977.
7.硕博士论文(Dissertation
 
Hubert, Henry Allan. “The Development of English Studies in Nineteenth-Century Anglo- Canadian Colleges.” Diss. U of British Columbia, 1988.
 
8.学术会议上的报告(Conference paper
 
Moffett, James. “Censorship and Spiritual Education.” The Right to Literacy Conference. Columbus, Ohio, September 1988.
 
9.电视广播节目和系列报道(A Radio/Television Broadcast/Series)
 
“Monkey Trial.” American Experience. PBS. WGBH, Boston. 18 Mar. 2003.
 
Ⅲ 著录汉语著作和文章
   如果在英文撰写的论文中引用中文著作或者期刊,括号夹注中只需用汉语拼音标明作者的姓氏,参考文献著录的条目必须按作者姓氏汉语拼音的字母顺序排列。例如:
 
Zhang, Zhijian. [张志健],严复思想研究. 桂林:广西师大出版社,1989
Yu, Yongding. [余永定],财政稳定问题研究的一个理论框架. 世界经济2005,(7):25-29
Wang, Mingliang. [王明亮],关于中国学术期刊标准数据库系统工程的进展[EB/OL]. http://www.cajcd.edu.cn,1998-08-16/1999-10-04
     注意:这里最后是一个著录网络上汉语出版物的例子,其中“1998-08-16”为网页发表或更新的日期,“1999-10-04”为引用日期。
Ⅳ 著录网络出版物
     著录网络出版物必须标明出版物的上传日期和论文撰写人上网查询的日期(date of retrieval),标明网址。条目中网址如需断开换行,必须在“/”之后或者“.”之前,网址中不得出现空格。
 
网络期刊(online journal)上的文章
1.纸印期刊的电子版:
Bleich, Eric. “From International Ideas to Domestic Policies: Educational Multiculturalism in England and France.” Comparative Politics 31.1 (Oct. 1998): 6 pp. Expanded Academic ASAP. Middlebury College 2 Aug. 2003 <http://myriad.middlebury.edu/verify-iac>.
          该例中,6 pp.”表示文章6页,Expanded Academic ASAP. Middlebury College”为网页名称,2 Aug. 2000”为论文撰写人上网查询的日期。
 
2. 网络上的独立文本(Stand-alone document)
 
Eilola, John. “Little Machines: Rearticulating Hypertext Users.” 3 Dec. 1994. 14 Aug 1996 <ftp://paper.joozone.com/pub/CCCC95/john-eilol>.
3. 大学网页上的文献
 
Felluga, Dino. Undergraduate Guide to Literary Theory. 17 Dec. 1999. Purdue University. 15 Nov. 2000 <http://omni.cc.purdue.edu/7Efelluga/ theory2.html>.
 
4. 网络上的参考资料(Online reference source
 
 
 “Fresco.” Britannica Online. Vers. 98.2. April 1998. Encyclopedia Britannica. 8 May 1998 <http://www.joozone.com:180>.
 
          注意:本例中Vers. 98.2为版本,April 1998为出版日期,Encyclopedia Britannica为出版人。
 
列举参考文献时所用到的缩写(Abbreviation
bk. , bks-----book, books         cf.---compare
ch. ,chs-----chapter, chapters      ed., eds----edition, editions
et al---- et alii, “and others ”   no., nos—number(of issue), numbers
p., pp.---page, pages          pt., pts----part,parts
qtd—quoted                 rpt—reprinted
Uni--- University            vol., vols-volume, volumes 
 
其它文内规范
  1. 不可以用缩写。
  2. 两位数以内的数字用英文拼写,两位以上的可以用阿拉伯数字标出即可。E.g.  Twenty-two years   thirty dollars,
                      124 years,    $29.9   5261 voters
  1. 标点符号后空一个字符。
非英语词句的引用和翻译格式。例如
 
e.g  Learners of Spanish tend to overuse certain idiomatic expressions, e.g., irse todo en humo (“to go up in smoke”).
4. 正确使用图表,图表必须有序号和题目并标明单位序号和题目置于其正上方单位置于其右上方。题目应简短确切一般不超过一行。须有自明性,即:不阅读正文的读者也能够理解图或表的意思。例如:
 
图3.5:正确使用图表的序号
正确:
Table 4.1 sums up the results of data analysis.
错误:
The following table sums up the results of data analysis:
 
 
 
 
 
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